CONSTITUENTS OF THE CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS WITH VERTICAL SUBSURFACE FLOW FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A REVIEW
Contenido principal del artículo
In this work, it is presented a summary of research articles on the main constituents of the constructed wetlands with vertical subsurface flow as well as the state of the art of this technology. Data collection was carried out at the databases Science Direct® and Springer© and the words vertical, up flow, constructed wetland, treatment, macrophyte and substrate were used. In the first stage, they were found 164 articles and, among these, only 42 had reported aspects about the objective of this study. The results indicated that nearby 66% of wetlands constructed with vertical flow are on a pilot scale. In addition, 100% of the systems used emergent macrophytes, with the emerging species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud. (PH) in 21% of the wetlands. Conventional materials such as sandand gravel are still used as substrate in most systems (59%). It was also observed that 59% of the wetlands were used for domestic and/or municipal wastewater treatment and that the Asian continent had the largest number of publications of this type of system, with 50% of articles with Asian origin. The constructed wetlands with vertical subsurface flow stood out in nitrogen removal because of the depletion of oxygen in the medium existing in the base of the unit, creating anaerobic / anoxic conditions. In this way, the right choice of the constituents of this system presents an important alternative for the treatment of wastewater.